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Past and present of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

Release time: 2019-02-28 15:51:27 Click: 3589

1 Introduction

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is not a new analytical method. Its predecessor can be traced back to the 10th International Spectroscopy Conference in 1962. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), abbreviated as LIBS, was proposed and implemented in 1962 by the David Cremers research team at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States. Since the group member Brech first proposed a spectrochemical method using a ruby microwave laser to induce plasma generation in 1962, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has begun to be widely used in many fields, such as online analysis of steel components, the universe Exploration, environment and waste monitoring, cultural heritage identification, industrial process control, medical testing, geochemical analysis, and NASA's Mars Exploration Program CHEMCAM, etc., and has developed many miniaturized online detection systems based on LIBS technology.


2, the basic principle of LIBS
Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy is essentially a method for chemical element analysis using atomic emission spectroscopy. It differs from arc and spark discharge spectroscopy in that LIBS uses high-energy lasers as the excitation source. Focus the high power (1 ~ 10MW cm-2) laser on a small area of the target surface. Under the excitation of the laser, about 10-9 ~ 10-12 g of the sample is ablated and generates high temperature (10000 ~ 20000K), high Density of plasma. At this time, the atom or ion formed by the sample degradation and gasification will first produce a continuous radiation. Since this radiation does not contain useful elemental information, it cannot be used for analysis. However, the plasma will then have characteristic lines that are discrete to the individual elements. These characteristic spectral lines are received by the optical fiber through the lens, and finally enter the spectrograph or array switch detector for analysis. The atomic line wavelength and intensity can be used to determine the element composition and element concentration in the sample.

The excitation method of LIBS determines that it can directly analyze samples in various states, including gas, liquid and solid. Any element will be excited by such a high energy density laser, so it can analyze all elements. LIBS's analysis wavelength range and nickname actually depend only on the optical system and detector it is equipped with. In addition, technically, LIBS is similar to other spectra that use lasers as excitation sources, such as excited Raman spectra, laser-induced fluorescence spectra, and so on. Many of these spectrometers have the same hardware. Attempts have been made to integrate these analysis and atomic spectroscopy techniques to obtain more detailed and in-depth composition and structure information of the samples.


3. Features
Due to the use of laser as the excitation source, LIBS has the following advantages over spark discharge emission spectrum and X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF):
Quick response feature to get the required information in real-time or near real-time. For relatively uniform samples, the test time of LIBS is only 1/3 ~ 1/30 of XRF;
Can analyze samples in various forms without any pre-treatment, avoiding possible pollution caused by the process;
Both conductive and non-conductive samples can be measured, such as hard and insoluble ceramics;
Multi-element simultaneous analysis, local micro-area analysis, surface analysis functions;

Due to the use of optical fibers to achieve the transmission of excitation light and emitted light, analysis that cannot be achieved by XRF can be performed through optical fibers, such as direct detection of nuclear facilities, heavily polluted areas, etc., and in-situ detection of subsurface soil layers.


4. Laser-induced breakdown spectrometer experimental device The laser-induced breakdown spectrum experimental device system is mainly composed of a laser, a vacuum chamber, a spectrometer, and a PC.
激光诱导击穿光谱系统示意图
Schematic of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system
5.Application of portable LIBS
Because of the characteristics of LIBS, especially the advantages suitable for on-site analysis, the development of LIBS in recent years has mainly focused on the development of portable analysis equipment and its application in the real-time analysis field.
Archeology and mineralogy: Elemental analysis before the restoration and preservation of cultural relics can simultaneously obtain information about the materials used in cultural relics and their possible degradation products. Non-contact, fast, full-element analysis, and no sample preparation make the LIBS branch suitable for on-site analysis of cultural relics.
Environmental monitoring: Environmental monitoring is the area with the largest application requirements and the most practical application of portable LIBS. Soil composition analysis is one of the main contents of environmental monitoring.
Space scientific research: ICP, XRF and other test methods all require electrodes or probes to be in contact with the sample to be measured or need to load the sample into the sample room of the equipment. These requirements are difficult to meet or are time-consuming and laborious in space science research. The telemetry function of LIBS makes it specially suitable for this type of scientific research.

Metal material inspection: Compared with XRF and emission spectroscopy, LIBS has many advantages. It is an important means to achieve on-site inspection of metal materials under various environmental conditions. It can quickly provide qualitative and quantitative analysis of various mixed metal products. With the continuous improvement of the portable LIBS system and further analysis of its performance, it is expected to become the mainstream equipment for on-site metal material inspection.

创想最新手持式激光诱导式光谱分析仪

Creators latest handheld laser-induced spectrometer

6. Summary With the advancement of laser and related technologies, LIBS will become a routine device in the field of field analysis.

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