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The past and present of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

Release time: 2019-02-28 15:51:27 Click: 3895

1 Introduction

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is not a new analytical method, its predecessor can be traced back to the 10th International Spectroscopy Conference in 1962. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), referred to as LIBS for short, was proposed and implemented by the David Cremers research team of Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States in 1962. Since the team member Brech first proposed the spectrochemical method of using a ruby microwave laser to induce plasma generation in 1962, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technology has been widely used in many fields, such as online analysis of steel components, universe Exploration, environment and waste monitoring, cultural heritage identification, industrial process control, medical testing, geochemical analysis, and NASA's Mars exploration program CHEMCAM, etc., and developed many miniaturized online detection systems based on LIBS technology.


2. The basic principle of LIBS
Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy is essentially a method of chemical element analysis using atomic emission spectroscopy. It differs from arc and spark discharge spectroscopy in that LIBS uses a high-energy laser as the excitation source. Focus the high-power (1 ~ 10MW cm-2) laser on a small area on the target surface. Under the excitation of the laser, about 10-9 ~ 10-12 g of the sample is ablated and generates high temperature (10000 ~ 20000K), high Density of plasma. At this time, the atoms or ions formed by the degradation and vaporization of the sample will first produce a continuous radiation. Since this radiation does not contain useful elemental information, it cannot be used for analysis. However, the plasma will then surpass the characteristic lines that separate the elements. These characteristic spectral lines are received by the optical fiber through the lens, and finally enter the spectrograph or array switch detector for analysis. The atomic composition wavelength and intensity can be used to determine the element composition and element concentration in the sample.

The excitation method of LIBS determines that it can directly analyze samples in various states, including gas, liquid and solid. Any element will be excited under such high energy density laser irradiation, so it can analyze all elements. The analysis wavelength range and nickname of LIBS actually only depend on the optical system and detectors configured. In addition, technically speaking, LIBS is similar to other spectra that use laser as an excitation source, such as excited Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, etc. Many of the hardware of these spectrometers are the same, and we have now tried to integrate these analysis and atomic spectroscopy techniques to obtain more detailed and in-depth composition and structural information of the samples.


3. Features
Due to the use of laser as the excitation source, LIBS has the following advantages compared with spark discharge emission spectrum and X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF):
Quick response characteristics, can obtain the required information in real time or near real time. For relatively uniform samples, the test time of LIBS is only 1/3 ~ 1/30 of XRF;
Samples of various forms can be analyzed without any pre-treatment, avoiding possible pollution caused by the processing process;
Both conductive and non-conductive samples can be measured, such as hard and insoluble ceramics;
Multi-element simultaneous analysis, local micro-area analysis, surface analysis function;

Due to the use of optical fibers for the transmission of excitation light and emitted light, analysis that cannot be achieved by XRF can be performed through optical fibers, such as direct and long-distance detection of nuclear facilities, heavily polluted areas, and in-situ detection of soil subsurface layers.


4. Laser induced breakdown spectrometer experimental device The laser induced breakdown spectrometer experimental device system is mainly composed of laser, vacuum chamber, spectrometer and PC.
激光诱导击穿光谱系统示意图
Schematic diagram of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy system
5. Application of portable LIBS
Because of the characteristics of LIBS, especially the advantages suitable for on-site analysis, the development of LIBS in recent years has mainly focused on the development of portable analysis equipment and its application in the field of real-time analysis.
Archaeology and mineralogy: performing elemental analysis before the restoration and preservation of cultural relics can simultaneously obtain information on materials used in cultural relics and their possible degradation products. The characteristics of non-contact, fast, full-element analysis and no sample preparation make the LIBS branch suitable for on-site analysis of cultural relics.
Environmental monitoring: Environmental monitoring is the area with the greatest demand for and application of portable LIBS. Soil composition analysis is one of the main contents of environmental monitoring.
Space science research: ICP, XRF and other test methods require electrodes or probes to be in contact with the sample to be tested or the sample needs to be loaded into the sample chamber of the device. These requirements are more difficult to meet in space science research or time-consuming. The telemetry function of LIBS makes it especially suitable for such scientific research.

Metal material inspection: LIBS has many advantages compared with XRF and emission spectroscopy. It is an important means to realize on-site inspection of metal materials under various environmental conditions. It can quickly provide qualitative and quantitative analysis of various mixed metal products. With the continuous improvement of the portable LIBS system and further analysis of performance, it is expected to become the mainstream equipment for on-site metal material inspection.

创想最新手持式激光诱导式光谱分析仪

Chuangxiang's latest handheld laser-induced spectrometer

6. Summary With the advancement of laser and related technologies, LIBS will surely become a routine equipment in the field analysis field.

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