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Learn to look at the coordinates of a direct-reading spectrometer

Release time: 2020-01-06 10:30:42 Click: 375

As long as the surface oxide scale is obtained by grinding the sample in the furnace, the solid sample can be excited on the sample table, eliminating the trouble of chemical analysis and drilling the sample. For a non-ferrous metal sample such as aluminum, copper, and zinc, a trolley can be used. The lathe can be descaled.

20-30 秒钟,速度非常快,有利于缩短冶炼时间,降低成本。 It takes only 20-30 seconds from the sample excitation to the computer to report the elemental analysis content , which is very fast, which is beneficial to shortening the smelting time and reducing costs. Especially for those elements that are easy to burn, it is easier to control the final composition.

All the elements to be analyzed (several or even a dozen) in the sample can be analyzed at the same time. For products with complex grades, the more analysis elements are required, the more cost-effective and good economic benefits.

Very high analysis accuracy for effective product control

X 轴)是波长,纵坐标( Y 轴)是在这个波长处的强度。 In general, the direct result of spectroscopic measurement is a curve formed by a number of discrete points, where the abscissa ( X axis) of each point is the wavelength and the ordinate ( Y axis) is the intensity at this wavelength. Therefore, the performance of a spectrometer can be roughly divided into the following categories:

Spectroscopy is based on measuring the correspondence between optical radiation and wavelength. X 轴)是波长,纵坐标( Y 轴)是在这个波长处的强度。 In general, the direct result of spectroscopic measurement is a curve formed by a number of discrete points, where the abscissa ( X axis) of each point is the wavelength and the ordinate ( Y axis) is the intensity at this wavelength. Therefore, the performance of a spectrometer can be roughly divided into the following categories:

Wavelength range

轴上的可以测量的范围) ( Measurable range on X axis)

2. Wavelength resolution

轴上可以分辨到什么程度的信号变化) (How much signal change can be distinguished on the x axis)

3. Noise equivalent power and dynamic range

轴上可以测量的范围); ( The range that can be measured on the Y axis);  

4. Sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio

轴上可以分辨到什么程度的信号变化) (How much signal change can be distinguished on the Y axis)

5. Stray light and stability

(Is the measurement of the signal reliable? Is it reproducible?);  

6. Sampling speed and timing accuracy

(How many complete spectra can be collected in one second? Is the time when the spectra were collected accurate?)

Wavelength range

The wavelength range is the wavelength range that the spectrometer can measure. 是400nm-1100nm ,也就是可以探测可见光和一部分近红外的光。 The most common fiber spectrometer has a wavelength range of 400nm-1100nm , which can detect visible light and a part of near-infrared light. 200nm-2500nm ,即覆盖紫外、可见和近红外波段。 With the new detector, this range can be extended to 200nm-2500nm , covering the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared bands. The type of grating and the type of detector affect the wavelength range. In general, a wide wavelength range means low wavelength resolution, so users need to make a trade-off between the two parameters of wavelength range and wavelength resolution. If a wide wavelength range and high wavelength resolution are required at the same time, multiple spectrometer channels (multichannel spectrometers) need to be used in combination.

2. Wavelength resolution  

1nm ,即可以区分间隔 1nm 的两条谱线。 As its name suggests, wavelength resolution describes the ability of a spectrometer to resolve wavelengths. The wavelength resolution of the most commonly used spectrometer is about 1 nm , which means that two spectral lines can be distinguished by 1 nm . 公司可以提供的最高的波长分辨率为 0.025nm The highest wavelength resolution Avantes can provide is 0.025nm . x 坐标的间隔)是两个不同概念。 Wavelength resolution and the sampling interval of the wavelength ( the interval of the x coordinate of the data ) are two different concepts. Generally, high wavelength resolution means a narrow range of wavelengths.    Therefore, the user needs to make a trade-off between the two parameters of wavelength range and wavelength resolution. If a wide wavelength range and high wavelength resolution are required at the same time, multiple spectrometer channels (multichannel spectrometers) need to be used in combination.

3. Noise equivalent power and dynamic range  

When the value of the signal is comparable to the value of the noise, it is very difficult to distinguish the signal from the noise. (Y 轴的最小值 ) Generally, the value of a signal equivalent to noise (spectral irradiance or spectral radiance) is used to characterize the weakest light intensity ( the minimum value of the Y axis ) that can be measured by a spectrometer . The smaller the noise equivalent power, the weaker the signal the spectrometer can measure. The width of the slit, the type of the grating, the type of the detector, etc. all affect the noise equivalent power. Because these parameters also affect the wavelength range and wavelength resolution, users need to make a choice between these indicators. Avantes 公司的制冷型光谱仪)有助于减小探测器的热噪音,优化探测器检测弱光的能力。 Cooling the detector ( Avantes ' refrigerated spectrometer) helps reduce the detector's thermal noise and optimize the detector's ability to detect weak light.  

Dynamic range describes the ratio of the strongest signal to the weakest signal that a spectrometer can measure. The strongest signal is the maximum signal value that the spectrometer can measure when the signal is not saturated. The weakest signal is measured by the noise equivalent power described above. The dynamic range is mainly limited by the type of detector. Traditionally, dynamic range is a key indicator that affects measurement convenience. However, most fiber optic spectrometers can expand the dynamic range equivalently by adjusting the integration time. Therefore, the dynamic range generally does not affect the user's measurement range. Come to trouble.

4. Sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio

Sensitivity describes the ability of a spectrometer to turn an optical signal into an electronic signal. A high sensitivity helps reduce the effect of the circuit's noise on the result. The width of the slit, the type of grating, the type of detector, and the parameters of the circuit all affect the sensitivity. Both gratings with high diffraction efficiency and detectors with high quantum efficiency are conducive to improving the sensitivity of the spectrometer. Artificially increasing the amplification of the preamplifier circuit will also increase the nominal sensitivity, but it does not necessarily help the actual measurement. Wide slits will improve sensitivity, but will also reduce resolution, so users need to consider and balance.

The signal-to-noise ratio of a spectrometer is defined as the ratio of the average value of the signal when the spectrometer is close to saturation under strong light and the jitter value of the signal that deviates from the average value (horizontal standard deviation). It should be noted that because there are no restrictions on the light source in the definition, the signal-to-noise ratio measured using this definition cannot be equivalent to the signal-to-noise ratio that users can achieve in actual experiments. The signal-to-noise ratio of a spectrometer is mainly limited by the detector. The signal is accumulated by the averaging function of the spectrometer circuit, which can improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the actual measurement.

5. Interference and stability  

One of the important differences between an actual spectrometer and an ideal spectrometer is that there are interferences such as stray light inside. Stray light can affect the accuracy of the signal and cause trouble in measuring weak signals. The specially designed low stray light path can reduce the stray light in the light path.

X 轴)的漂移。 Both the optical path and the detector of the spectrometer inevitably change with the environment. For example, changes in the ambient temperature will cause the wavelength ( X axis) of the spectrometer to drift. Special treatment of the optical path and detector can enhance the long-term stability of the spectrometer. However, these special treatments increase the hardware cost of the spectrometer.

6. Sampling speed and timing accuracy  

Transcend 's spectrometer has good timing performance to capture very short pulse signals. The timing accuracy of different types of spectrometers varies greatly. Good performance can reach time accuracy on the order of nanoseconds, while poor performance can only reach time accuracy on the order of milliseconds.

下一篇: 光谱仪的光学分辨率这个参数决定着什么? Previous: Mutual restriction of three parameters of spectrometer Next: What is the parameter of optical resolution of spectrometer?

hot key words:

Direct Reading Spectrometer

High frequency infrared carbon and sulfur analyzer

Spark direct reading spectrometer

Portable spectrometer

Photoelectric direct reading spectrum analyzer


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