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Learn to read the coordinates of the graph generated by the direct reading spectrometer

Release time: 2020-01-06 10:30:42 Click: 714

As long as the surface oxide scale is removed from the furnace, the solid sample can be excited on the sample table, eliminating the trouble of chemical analysis and drilling samples. Lathe can be removed from the surface oxide scale.

20-30 秒钟,速度非常快,有利于缩短冶炼时间,降低成本。 It only takes 20-30 seconds from the sample excitation to the computer to report the elemental analysis content , which is very fast, which is beneficial to shorten the smelting time and reduce the cost. Especially for those elements that are easy to burn, it is easier to control the final composition.

All the elements (a few or even a dozen) to be analyzed in the sample can be analyzed at the same time. For products with complex brands, the more analysis elements required, the more cost-effective, and the economic benefits are good.

The analysis accuracy is very high, which can effectively control the product

X 轴)是波长,纵坐标( Y 轴)是在这个波长处的强度。 Generally speaking, the direct result of spectroscopy measurement is a curve composed of many discrete points. The abscissa ( X axis) of each point is the wavelength, and the ordinate ( Y axis) is the intensity at this wavelength. Therefore, the performance of a spectrometer can be roughly divided into the following categories:

The basis of spectroscopic measurement is to measure the correspondence between optical radiation and wavelength. X 轴)是波长,纵坐标( Y 轴)是在这个波长处的强度。 Generally speaking, the direct result of spectroscopy measurement is a curve composed of many discrete points. The abscissa ( X axis) of each point is the wavelength, and the ordinate ( Y axis) is the intensity at this wavelength. Therefore, the performance of a spectrometer can be roughly divided into the following categories:

1. Wavelength range

轴上的可以测量的范围) (The measurable range on the X axis)

2. Wavelength resolution

轴上可以分辨到什么程度的信号变化) ( What degree of signal change can be distinguished on the X axis)

3. Noise equivalent power and dynamic range

轴上可以测量的范围); ( The range that can be measured on the Y axis);  

4. Sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio

轴上可以分辨到什么程度的信号变化) ( What degree of signal change can be distinguished on the Y axis)

5. Stray light and stability

(Is the signal measurement reliable? Is it reproducible);  

6. Sampling speed and timing accuracy

(How many complete spectra can be collected in one second? Is the time at which the spectra were collected accurate?)

1. Wavelength range

The wavelength range is the wavelength range that the spectrometer can measure. 是400nm-1100nm ,也就是可以探测可见光和一部分近红外的光。 The wavelength range of the most common fiber optic spectrometer is 400nm-1100nm , that is, it can detect visible light and part of near-infrared light. 200nm-2500nm ,即覆盖紫外、可见和近红外波段。 Using a new type of detector can extend this range to 200nm-2500nm , which covers the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared bands. The type of grating and the type of detector affect the wavelength range. Generally speaking, a wide wavelength range means low wavelength resolution, so users need to make a trade-off between the two parameters of wavelength range and wavelength resolution. If a wide wavelength range and high wavelength resolution are required at the same time, multiple spectrometer channels (multi-channel spectrometer) need to be used in combination.

2. Wavelength resolution  

1nm ,即可以区分间隔 1nm 的两条谱线。 As the name implies, wavelength resolution describes the ability of a spectrometer to resolve wavelengths. The wavelength resolution of the most commonly used spectrometer is about 1 nm , that is , two spectral lines separated by 1 nm can be distinguished . 公司可以提供的最高的波长分辨率为 0.025nm The highest wavelength resolution that Avantes can provide is 0.025nm . x 坐标的间隔)是两个不同概念。 The wavelength resolution and the sampling interval of the wavelength ( the interval of the x coordinate of the data ) are two different concepts. Generally speaking, high wavelength resolution means a narrow wavelength range    , So users need to make a trade-off between the two parameters of wavelength range and wavelength resolution. If a wide wavelength range and high wavelength resolution are required at the same time, multiple spectrometer channels (multi-channel spectrometer) need to be used in combination.

3. Noise equivalent power and dynamic range  

When the value of the signal is equal to the value of noise, it is very difficult to distinguish the signal from the noise. (Y 轴的最小值 ) The value of the signal equivalent to noise (spectral irradiance or spectral radiance) is generally used to characterize the weakest light intensity ( the minimum value on the Y axis ) that can be measured by a spectrometer . The smaller the noise equivalent power, the spectrometer can measure a weaker signal. The width of the slit, the type of grating, the type of detector, etc. all affect the noise equivalent power. Because these parameters also affect the wavelength range and wavelength resolution, users need to choose between these indicators. Avantes 公司的制冷型光谱仪)有助于减小探测器的热噪音,优化探测器检测弱光的能力。 Cooling the detector ( Avantes ' cooling spectrometer) helps reduce the detector's thermal noise and optimize the detector's ability to detect weak light.  

Dynamic range describes the ratio of the strongest signal to the weakest signal that a spectrometer can measure. The strongest signal is the maximum signal value that the spectrometer can measure in the case of signal saturation, and the weakest signal is measured by the noise equivalent power mentioned above. The dynamic range is mainly limited by the type of detector. Traditionally, the dynamic range is a very important indicator that affects the convenience of measurement. However, most fiber spectrometers can effectively expand the dynamic range by adjusting the integration time. Therefore, the dynamic range generally does not affect the user's measurement band. To trouble.

4. Sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio

Sensitivity describes the ability of a spectrometer to turn an optical signal into an electronic signal. High sensitivity helps reduce the effect of noise in the circuit itself on the result. The width of the slit, the type of grating, the type of detector, and the parameters of the circuit all affect the sensitivity. Gratings with high diffraction efficiency and detectors with high quantum efficiency are conducive to improving the sensitivity of the spectrometer. Artificially increasing the magnification of the pre-amplifier circuit will also increase the nominal sensitivity, but it does not necessarily contribute to the actual measurement. The wide slit will improve the sensitivity, but it will also reduce the resolution. Therefore, the user needs comprehensive consideration and trade-offs.

The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer is defined as: the ratio of the average value of the signal when the spectrometer is close to saturation and the jitter value of the signal deviating from the average value (horizontal standard deviation) under the strong light. It should be noted that because there is no restriction on the light source in the definition, the signal-to-noise ratio measured using this definition cannot be equal to the signal-to-noise ratio that users can achieve in actual experiments. The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer is mainly limited by the detector. Accumulating the signal by the average function of the spectrometer circuit can improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the actual measurement.

5. Interference and stability  

One of the important differences between an actual spectrometer and an ideal spectrometer is that there are interferences such as stray light inside. Stray light will affect the accuracy of the signal and cause trouble for measuring weak signals. The specially designed low stray light path can reduce the stray light in the light path.

X 轴)的漂移。 Both the optical path of the spectrometer and the detector inevitably change with the environment. For example, changes in the ambient temperature can cause the wavelength ( X axis) of the spectrometer to drift. Special treatment of the optical path and detector can enhance the long-term stability of the spectrometer. However, these special treatments increase the hardware cost of the spectrometer.

6. Sampling speed and timing accuracy  

Imagination spectrometer spectrometer has good timing performance to capture very short pulse signals. The timing accuracy of different types of spectrometers varies greatly. Good performance can reach time accuracy in the order of nanoseconds, while poor performance can only reach time accuracy in the order of milliseconds.

下一篇: 光谱仪的光学分辨率这个参数决定着什么? Previous: The mutual restriction of the three parameters of the spectrometer Next: What does the optical resolution of the spectrometer determine?

hot key words:

Direct Reading Spectrometer

High frequency infrared carbon and sulfur analyzer

Spark Direct Reading Spectrometer

Portable spectrometer

Photoelectric Direct Reading Spectrum Analyzer


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